Compass Mitarbeiter erneut ausgezeichnet

Nachdem am 25. Mai 2014 bereits Alexandre Herzog, CTO bei Compass Security, mit dem 1337-Award durch die SGRP, einer Alumni-Organisation für MAS Information Security[1] Absolventen der Hochschule Luzern, ausgezeichnet [2] wurde, ist es erneut einem Compass Mitarbeiter gelungen, die Fachjury von seinem ausserordentlichen Wissen und Können zu überzeugen.

Lukas Reschke hat im Rahmen seines Praktikums bei der Compass Security eine Abschlussarbeit zur Analyse von Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) geschrieben. Die Arbeit beschreibt APT generell, gibt Einblicke in forensische Vorgehensweise, zeigt Erkennungsmuster auf und gibt Tips und Tricks für die Analyse von bösartigem Netzwerkverkehr mittels Splunk .

Im Rahmen der Abschlussfeier vom 3. Juli 2014 in der Tonhalle St. Gallen wurde Lukas Reschke in zweierlei Hinsicht für seine Leistungen an der Kantonschule am Brühl in St. Gallen geehrt.

Zum einen wurde er für den Aufbau des Tech-Mentorship geehrt, welches er im Alleingang ins Leben gerufen und aufgebaut hat. Das Tech-Mentorship, hat zum Ziel, dass Schüler mit herausragenden IT-Kenntnissen ihren Kammeraden den Umgang mit der Technik während dem Studium erleichtern und auch als Anlaufstelle für IT Probleme zur Verfügung stehen. Für diese ausserordentliche Leistung wurde er vom Ehemaligenverein der Kantonsschule am Brühl mit einem Preisgeld von 500 Franken ausgezeichnet. Zum anderen wurde Lukas für die beste Abschlussarbeit des Studiengangs WMI mit einer Note von 5,9 gewürdigt.

Lukas, die Compass Crew gratuliert dir auf diesem Weg nochmals ganz herzlich!

Grosse Teile der Erkenntnisse aus seiner Arbeit sind bereits in das neue Hands-on Seminar “Network Analysis & Advanced Persistent Threat” eingeflossen und ist somit den besten Experten im europäischen Raum zugänglich. Unsere Leser dürfen sich zudem auf die Publikation des entstandenen Whitepapers per Anfang September freuen.

Nächste Kurse
– 11. und 12. September 2014 in Bern, iPhone und iPad Security
– 11. und 12. November 2014 in Bern, Network Analysis & Advanced Persistent Threat

Referenzen
[1] HSLU MAS Information Security 
[2] SGRP Auszeichnung Alexandre Herzog für ” Crypto-based security mechanisms in Windows and .NET ” 

 

 

Release of Smart Meter Security Controls Whitepaper at Hack in Paris 2014

This article was published when I just flipped through the final slides talking at “Hack in Paris” on smart meter wireless protocol issues. The combo of trainings, conference and the “nuit du hack” is held at the Disney Land Resort Paris for the 4th edition.

hip2014

Yes, Disney Land. When I arrived at the hotel I ran into a crowd of kids gathering around Goofy. Their parents ready to capture to moment of joy. When I entered my room, a Pluto greeting card spread a warm welcome from the small desk. A Bambi painting decorates the wall and the body wash has Mickey Mouse ears at its cap.

Well, as unusual it sounds, isn’t it imagination, creativity and an urge to play what the venue and hackers share? We are definitely not the average visitor and this got immediately confirmed when I showed up at breakfast where the waiter somewhat puzzled asked me: “Combien ?”. Still watching at the corner, expecting kids and wife would turn up in a second. “No, je suis tout seul”, I answered with a smile :)

For Comic fans definitely a must see and must stay. The venue’s magic is what really matters in life: fun and family. So do hackers love to have fun and to share knowledge with equal minded.

While we are at sharing stuff. For those who have ever looked for a security checklist for smart meters. Here it is: compass_security_smart_meter_controls_whitepaper_v1.0

That checklist built the foundation of all my research. The full paper features a lengthy introduction and analysis based on the OCTAVE Allegro Risk Assessment method in order to identify suitable controls for smart meters. For the quick reader: Skip to chapter 3.3 for the total list of 43 smart meter controls. Your feedback is highly appreciated!

And here are the links to the HIP 2014 slides, the git repos and other related work

Presentation Slides HIP 2014
Whitepaper Blackhat 2013
Google Go Sniffer & MUC (credits lukas.reschke@csnc.ch)
Python Sniffer „Scambus“
GNU Radio wM-Bus (credits neundorf@kde.org)
– Clipart credits go to http://openclipart.org

For those interested in solving puzzles and hands-on security training sign-up for a free remote hacking-lab.com account and get knee deep into our virtual pwnable lab. Hacking-lab features a wide variety of information security, penetration testing, security assessment and forensics hands-on training exercises to educate students and information security professionals. Give it a try.

 

Calculating RSA private keys from its public counterpart

Compass crew members just got back to work from a fun weekend/night at Insomni’hack (Geneva) where hackers met [0] to solve puzzles and enjoying the hacker community. On the way back home was sufficient time to clean-up systems and to reflect on some of the challenges.

There was a variety of brain teasing puzzles relating to application, network and computer security, digital forensics, reversing or steganography. During the contest the team gets more challenging puzzles unlocked by the time they hand in solutions. The solutions was always some sort of special formattet string a.k.a. token or nugget.

I decided to write-up one of the puzzles to have it documented of course and to provide you with an idea how such a puzzles looks like. So, let’s dig into it.

Challenge: “An ancient device is sending beacons. Let’s see whether we can derive information from it.”

The beacons received were

52568362028447315123743948788053644459577411882456257531616135268537279675960870614430475573303102032918797133050913
52727929746007441720068082686756949179073655255531676829839480670880742558336965750100665996845187331498825064459186
201158324192401598932420659686637057233217007355201796046752494579206057840824741418635158750620395621617197903012628
28130137328108864733654457574649869546226965870669213292484603118885398856280073620722817153185715356950196877471039
80484565918589639155839282503441828047447393078860552265541334592733372319489211090676853869300071705818380141734553
327884935077457453113605219951670824692959814316520336632744473695392968704109006664884646461226287506677371413786816
71320589399616119392997612087604459808872826741986236180026121617993570092370114471863111200409714142046077511450033
222751634152401318446067973538013344568447280940195394615901147009774216683554748179893081969917861424112117226026325
28130137328108864733654457574649869546226965870669213292484603118885398856280073620722817153185715356950196877471039
80484565918589639155839282503441828047447393078860552265541334592733372319489211090676853869300071705818380141734553
139898042261876853301455727625774012475698643685395021760275568789054192063562822563098057540361718346301097569068285
290458508376731263921252055316868138470702882414424357263569140840448897025047660176505033785801971649974769416580828
11782118315742696825087904229204586109210704966361563810081222896447101063588246593812259079361925308894139998117784
39752644457197524816840681265913188543326108820355516805599867640545430987920927262238504378204278859183980221246355
301118090575689790044304143985657097761186152450376594357207609156541662901869839587261599850312495649532760148859125
80484565918589639155839282503441828047447393078860552265541334592733372319489211090676853869300071705818380141734553
222751634152401318446067973538013344568447280940195394615901147009774216683554748179893081969917861424112117226026325
76309999578481760278134186167064490139180297738713651148555706607615754191408415493954631393292274058258783002375297
312440510356542990832274139310717029606738136784317835051579720866508272813085512326169432510915628987511601361100755
312440510356542990832274139310717029606738136784317835051579720866508272813085512326169432510915628987511601361100755
76309999578481760278134186167064490139180297738713651148555706607615754191408415493954631393292274058258783002375297
11782118315742696825087904229204586109210704966361563810081222896447101063588246593812259079361925308894139998117784
39752644457197524816840681265913188543326108820355516805599867640545430987920927262238504378204278859183980221246355
71320589399616119392997612087604459808872826741986236180026121617993570092370114471863111200409714142046077511450033
11782118315742696825087904229204586109210704966361563810081222896447101063588246593812259079361925308894139998117784
39752644457197524816840681265913188543326108820355516805599867640545430987920927262238504378204278859183980221246355
301118090575689790044304143985657097761186152450376594357207609156541662901869839587261599850312495649532760148859125
71320589399616119392997612087604459808872826741986236180026121617993570092370114471863111200409714142046077511450033
39752644457197524816840681265913188543326108820355516805599867640545430987920927262238504378204278859183980221246355
301118090575689790044304143985657097761186152450376594357207609156541662901869839587261599850312495649532760148859125
11782118315742696825087904229204586109210704966361563810081222896447101063588246593812259079361925308894139998117784
71320589399616119392997612087604459808872826741986236180026121617993570092370114471863111200409714142046077511450033
231618262599702676973845832517759334021176525056072833529569269456564473604609355284495911481371096877656941135244359
139898042261876853301455727625774012475698643685395021760275568789054192063562822563098057540361718346301097569068285
76309999578481760278134186167064490139180297738713651148555706607615754191408415493954631393292274058258783002375297
28130137328108864733654457574649869546226965870669213292484603118885398856280073620722817153185715356950196877471039
301118090575689790044304143985657097761186152450376594357207609156541662901869839587261599850312495649532760148859125
11782118315742696825087904229204586109210704966361563810081222896447101063588246593812259079361925308894139998117784
231609473505895645459311620779424869497767062819966540784040891362418669395322439617108666258332519877710534676878307
139898042261876853301455727625774012475698643685395021760275568789054192063562822563098057540361718346301097569068285
80484565918589639155839282503441828047447393078860552265541334592733372319489211090676853869300071705818380141734553
222751634152401318446067973538013344568447280940195394615901147009774216683554748179893081969917861424112117226026325
181895177774870499268628883221214310423523857203344119754826804608066049315978476367118679395919668261312392452153631
231618262599702676973845832517759334021176525056072833529569269456564473604609355284495911481371096877656941135244359
231609473505895645459311620779424869497767062819966540784040891362418669395322439617108666258332519877710534676878307
205884448854259361864211375336005072036904149095927464741554161540888665349683555934701608904819901412468420531999589

Interestingly, the number of beacons matches the number of characters required for submition to the nugget verification application of that hacking challenge and for some reason we also have a copy of a public key.

-----BEGIN PUBLIC KEY-----
MEwwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEBBQADOwAwOAIxCGVV/7bWB7CH0Z2UsUJgM/s6zW2UCiid
twBq/aXZxGfqX0gBgwwgAAAAAAAAAGFvjQIDAQAB
-----END PUBLIC KEY-----

As we all know, we can’t use that key to get any plaintext from information protected with an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm. However, let’s have a quick look on the parameters of the key:

$ openssl rsa -pubin -in pubkey.txt -modulus -text
Public-Key: (388 bit)
Modulus:
08:65:55:ff:b6:d6:07:b0:87:d1:9d:94:b1:42:60:
33:fb:3a:cd:6d:94:0a:28:9d:b7:00:6a:fd:a5:d9:
c4:67:ea:5f:48:01:83:0c:20:00:00:00:00:00:00:
00:61:6f:8d
Exponent: 65537 (0x10001)
Modulus=86555FFB6D607B087D19D94B1426033FB3ACD6D940A289DB7006AFDA5D9C467EA5F4801830C2000000000000000616F8D
...

Usually, for sufficiently large and properly chosen keys, the derivation of the private key from its public coutnerpart is not possible. In this case, the key size is obviously not that large and as we have no other information so far, let’s try to bluntly factorize the modulus N.

You could either try to do so online [1] or use CryptTool [2].rsa_public_key_cracking

The result clearly shows that an unfortunate combination of primes was chosen as the base of the key material.

p=13331
q=24815323469403931728221172233738523533528335161133543380459461440894543366372904768334987264000000000000000000479

So let’s see whether we can calculate the RSA private key from the parameters we have already.

The private key d can be calculate from e and phi whereby

e which is the exponent (see public key dump)
phi(N) which is based on the factorized primes and calculates as (p-1)(q-1)

Hint: Depending on your code, you might want to put e in decimal rather than in hex 0x10001 to avoid spending to much time on debugging :)

Finally you will need to compute d = e^-1 mod phi(N) in order to get the private key.

Hint by M. «If you’re already using CrypTool anyway, you could also use it to calculate d from p,q,e without having to code anything on your own: Indiv. Procedures > RSA Cryptosystem > RSA Demonstration.»

If your prefer to solve it in python it’s far more challenging. I have not been very successfull in finding a python RSA library that allows for that specific calculation. Luckily there are lot’s of websites actually providing hints on how to calculate the modular inverse based on the extended euclidean algorithm. Thus I went for a copycat approach [3].

def egcd(a, b):
	x,y, u,v = 0,1, 1,0
	while a != 0:
		q, r = b//a, b%a
		m, n = x-u*q, y-v*q
		b,a, x,y, u,v = a,r, u,v, m,n
	return b, x, y

def modinv(a, m):
	g, x, y = egcd(a, m)
	if g != 1:
		return None
	else:
		return x % m

Finally, we will need to try whether the generated private key yields some resonable results on the beacons. The plaintext pt calculates as follows:

pt = beacon^d mod N

In python this is pow(beacon,d,n) rather than (beacon**d) mod n. Mathematically, both python statements should return the same result. However, pow is optimized to handle large factors whereas (beacon**d) mod n will take forever for RSA like calculations.

Finally, we get ASCII characters from each beacon which turned out to be the correct format and plaintext to qualify for a solution (python script – calculation.py).

I
N
S
1
4
...

And it did !!

Thanks to the SCRT team who actually built not only this but also other fun and challenging puzzles and thanks to those who were sufficiently patient to discuss twist and turns while battling!

For those interested in solving puzzles and hands-on security training join us for our awsome courses or sign-up for a free remote hacking-lab.com [4] account and get knee deep into our virtual pwnable lab. Hacking-lab features a wide variety of information security, penetration testing, security assessment and forensics hands-on training exercises to educate students and information security professionals. Give it a try.

References
[0] European hackers hit Geneva competition http://www.skynews.com.au/tech/article.aspx?id=960593
[1] Online factor DB at http://www.factordb.com/
[2] CryptTool http://www.cryptool.org/en/download-ct1-en
[3] Extended Euclidean Algorithm Snippet http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Algorithm_Implementation/Mathematics/Extended_Euclidean_algorithm
[4] Hacking-Lab http://www.hacking-lab.com/

RHUL Information Security Group (ISG) Weekend Conference

Each year, the world renowned Royal Holloway University of London (RHUL) Information Security Group (ISG) invites potential, current and past students to join the weekend conference and meet with well regarded security researchers and experts from academia, UK government and the industries. Part of the tradition is to to have dinner at the wonderfull and well-preserved Founder’s Building (1881).

royal_holloway_founders_building

I felt very honoured to be explicitely invited to present part of my MSc thesis results in such well regarded environment.

Colin Walter, Director of Distance Learning, ISG: “As our top project students this year, it is my great pleasure to invite you each to give a short presentation at the next annual summer school for students and alumni of the distance learning MSc in Information Security, to be held at Royal Holloway on Sat/Sun 7-8 September 2013.”

Conference topics included risk management and information security accreditation programs, e-crime and bot net behaviour, cloud encryption and key management aspects, various communication protocols analysis as well as latest developments in side channel attack resistance.

Certificate revocation checking

Keith Vella Licari, currently with Deloitte Malta, provided insights into its master thesis on certificate revocation checking protocols. He discovered shortcomings which demand for improvement in the way certificate checking is currently done.

CRL OCSP Lightweight OCSP
Can easily become large
and unwieldy
Ambiguous answer
(good|revoked|unknown)
Pre-produced responses
Timeliness (delay until next
update)
Only definitive answers are
digitally signed
Only definitive answers are
digitally signed
Scalability (self-inflicted
DDoS)
Optional protection against
replay attacks
No protection against
replay attacks
Table 1: Keith Vella Licari, Towards a reliable revocation status checking method, Main Issues
.

Table 1 provides an overview of the issues of the protocols subject to analysis. In order to provide improvement over the findings, Keith has formally proposed an alternative protocol (RSDP). He is currently asking for torough peer review of its proposal. I encourage readers, affiliated to either OWASP or hacking-lab.com to take on the challenge.

Defense by Nature

David Naccache, cryptographer and professor at the Université Panthéon-Assas in Paris and member of the École normale supérieure Computer Laboratory, presented current research focusing on improvement of resistance to side-channel attacks. The study aimed to improve resistance for communication between of-the-shelf controllers/CPUs and memory parts. The approach taken basically involves transmission of empirically identified “fake” values along with the data to camouflage the communication emission.

The concept lends it an idea from nature where animals which share a common predator mimic the look-a-like of a poisonous counter-part (Müllerian mimicry) to get away disregarded. Some would actually call that approach “Security by Obscurity”. However, applying the technique to emission channels basically allows masking the leaked information to appear to be something else. All under the assumption the attacker and the designed have comparable analytical capabilities in terms of probes sensitivity and measurement equipment sampling rate. Thus, the approach could allow for better resistance of standard electronic components on the price of some factors larger memory than really needed.

References

Slides and videos will be pusblished soon. Check http://www.isg.rhul.ac.uk/dl/weekendconference2013/sunday.html

Embedded devices and cell phone flash memory acquisition using JTAG

Back in Black (back from Black Hat with a bag full of schwag and branded black shirts). 

Black Hat and DEF CON again allowed insights into latest research and concerns. Where some topics loose grip ( vulnerability scanning, IPv4, DNS, general web issues) others gain momentum (DDoS, mobile computing, smart energy, industrial control and embedded systems). Myself was speaking on the advanced metering infrastructure and specifically on the security of the wireless M-Bus protocol. Slide deck and whitepaper are available for download from the Compass Security news page[1].

At that time, I would like to let you know about a little invention that makes reversing of embedded systems and industrial control devices partially easier. JTAGulator [2]. A device designed by Joe Grand, aka Kingpin and former DEF CON badge designer, with the sole purpose of identifying JTAG PINs and UART serial lines on printed circuit boards (PCB). There is no need to unomunt or desolder devices. JTAGulator can be configured to run on a range of voltages (1.2-3.3V) and features 24 I/Os that are arbitrarily connected to the board in order to identify the relevant pins. Note, that testing for the valid pinout might cause your little device behave strangely while JTAGulator tries to pull lines up and down. Thus, make sure you stay in safe distance :)

Now, you wonder !!!@#$ JTAG!!!…understandably. Joint Test Action Group[3], is the name for a standardized hardware interface (IEEE 1149.1) that allows to test and debug integrated circuits. Most embedded devices (cell phones, wireless routers, …) nowadays implement the interface. Having enough information of the target device, the chip and its peripherals could be initialized and accessed using the JTAG interface. Specifically, the interface could allow access to flash memory contents. Thus, the technology comes in handy to acquire cell phone data on a low level or to extract the firmware of embedded devices.

JTAG interfaces are small boxes that interface between the embedded hardware and a common computer. For example, the Swiss based company Amontec[4] provides a high-speed general purpose interface at low cost (120 Euros). The box and its drivers are compatible with the OpenOCD software[5] an on-chip debugger that allows for programming and debugging of embedded devices using some specific command set and the GNU debugger[6]. The Android community[7] has adopted the approach for debug purposes of the Android kernel [8].

With that, I leave you for the moment and I promise we get back to you soon with more summaries on topics of interest.

References
[1] Slides and Whitepaper wireless M-Bus Security, http://www.csnc.ch/en/modules/news/news_0088.html
[2] JTAGulater, http://www.grandideastudio.com/portfolio/jtagulator/
[3] JTAG, http://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/1149.1-1990.html
[4] Amontec, http://www.amontec.com/
[5] OpenOCD, http://openocd.sourceforge.net/
[6] GNU Debugger, http://www.gnu.org/software/gdb/
[7] Android Kernel, http://source.android.com/source/building-kernels.html
[8] Video Android Kernel Debugging, http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=JzMj_iU4vx

Compass Crew Member Speaking at Black Hat USA

Cyrill Brunschwiler’s talk was selected “among the very best research available today” to be presented side-by-side with the security industries top researchers on the world’s most renowned security conference – Black Hat USA in Las Vegas.

He will be speaking on “Energy Fraud and Orchestrated Blackouts: Issues with Wireless Metering Protocols (wM-Bus)”.

The work presented provides insights into the security of the Meter Bus (M-Bus) as specified within the relevant standards. The M-Bus is very popular in remote meter reading and has its roots in the heat metering industries. It has continuously been adopted to fit more complex applications during the past twenty years. According to a workshop note, an estimated 15 million devices were relying on the wireless version of M-Bus in 2010. It was analyzed whether smart meters using wireless M-Bus do fit the overall security and reliability needs of the grid or whether such devices might threaten the infrastructure.

The M-Bus standard has been analyzed whether it provides effective security mechanisms. It can be stated that wireless M-Bus seems to be robust against deduction of consumption behaviour from the wireless network traffic. For this reason, it is considered privacy-preserving against network traffic analysis. Unfortunately, vulnerabilities have been identified that render that fact obsolete. The findings are mainly related to confidentiality, integrity, and authentication.

Consequently, smart meters relying on wireless M-Bus and supporting remote disconnects are prone to become subject to an orchestrated remote disconnect which poses a severe risk to the grid. Further issues may lead to zero consumption detection, disclosure of consumption values, and disclosure of encryption keys.

The full abstract is available at https://www.blackhat.com/us-13/briefings.html#Brunschwiler. Hacking-lab.com, OWASP and ICS-labs folks attending either Black Hat or DEFCON drop me a note! I’ll be glad to meet you in person.

Lean Risk Assessment based on OCTAVE Allegro

The article will provide a quick overview and introduction into the Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation (OCTAVE) Allegro [1] methodology, its approach and terminology. OCTAVE Allegro is an asset centric and lean risk assessment successor of the OCTAVE method. The method supports a straight-forward qualitative risk assessment and structured threat analysis which mainly fits for smaller organisations (few hundred employees). Figure 1 is based on [2] and groups the methodology steps into four major phases.

OCTAVE Allegro Phases

  • Phase “Establish Drivers” aims to justify and prioritise the measurement criteria for risk for a specific organisation.
  • Phase “Profile Assets” is designed to identify and document logical, technical, physical and people assets.
  • Phase “Identify Threats” focuses on the identification of threats against the identified assets.
  • Phase “Identify and Mitigate Risk” supports the valuation of the risks posed against the critical information assets. Finally, after this step, the mitigation strategy for each of the identified risks is defined.

Figure 1: OCTAVE Allegro steps and phases [2]

OCTAVE Allegro Steps

This section goes through all of the OCTAVE Allegros steps to provide an introduction into the methodology. Moreover, each step will be accompanied by a fictitious example related to AMI. Note, that dark coloured steps in figure 1 are considered major steps in order to conduct a threat analysis whereas light coloured steps are crucial when approaching a complete risk assessment.

Step 1 advises to identify all areas that impact an organisation. The methodology requires for a minimum set of areas which includes safety, health, productivity, reputation, financial and fines. For each of the impact areas, a set of criteria to measure low, medium and high impact must be developed. Table 1 provides an example for loss of revenue in case of data privacy violation. Finally, the major areas will be ranked and assigned values in order to allow for risk scoring. In case five areas have been identified and “legal penalties” is considered the top risk area, then the area would be assigned a five. An example is provided in table 6.

Table 1: OCTAVE Allegro Step 1: Establish Risk Measurement Criteria. Impact Area Example

Step 2 provides guidance in identifying critical information assets for the organisation. The methodology also provides a set of questions and asks for example for the value of assets or the dependency on assets for the day-to-day business of the organisation. Each identified information asset will be attributed additional cornerstone such as the security requirements to make up a whole information asset profile. An example for key material in a smart meter is provided in table 2. Moreover, each profile’s most important security requirement is being identified to support the later valuation of the potential impacts. OCTAVE Allegro does not provide much guidance and structure on how to identify security requirements. A way to model such requirements is by means of misuse cases [3]. The misuse case approach lends it from the unified modelling language (UML) such as used in common software engineering processes where success and fail scenarios of interaction with data and processes is being modelled. Though, the modelling of misuse cases rather focuses on the abuse of such scenarios by malicious actors (misusers).

Table 2: OCTAVE Allegro Step 2: Develop Information Asset Profile. Critical Information Asset Example

Step 3 collects information asset containers in the form of an information asset risk environment map. Information asset containers, as the name implies, can hold, process or somehow get in touch with information assets. The methodology classifies containers as technical, physical and people. Table 3 provides examples for each of the types. Correspondingly, containers are being attributed whether they are of type internal which means under control of the organisation or whether the container is external.

Table 3: OCTAVE Allegro Step 3: Identify Information Asset Containers. Container Examples

For the analysis of an organisation the type column can be attributed with minimal effort. However, for an abstract analysis such as network protocols or embedded devices, some assumptions must be made. There is no general rule on what assumptions to make.

Step 4‘s goal is to identify major areas of concern. Thereby the method foresees to consider all containers and to identify issues that could affect assets within the container. The compiled list of “areas of concern” is then expanded with the according actor, the means to realise the threat, the motive of the actor and the potential outcome. Whereby an outcome is always one out of disclosure, modification, interruption or destruction. The method documentation further lists loss next to destruction. An example, implicitly referencing the affected information asset, is provided in table 4. This step does not aim to identify a complete list of threats but helps to capture the major concerns in short time.

Table 4: OCTAVE Allegro Step 4: Identify Areas of Concern. Area of Concern Example

Note, that I have made use of this step in order to capture area of concerns for the smart meter and wireless M-Bus analysis within my master thesis.

Step 5 ensures structured identification of all potential threats. Threat trees ensure robust consideration of threats. The step relies on four trees in total. Two considering human actors with either technical or physical means and two considering technical and other problems. Part of the “Human Actors Using Technical Means” tree originating of the methodology documentation [1] is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: OCTAVE Allegro “Human Actors Using Technical Means” Tree [1]

With each information asset, each branch of the four trees will be traversed to ensure thorough coverage and identification of threats. The guidance provides worksheets and questionnaires to simplify the activity. The result of the walk through will be a comprehensive list of threat entries as shown in table 4. Optionally, each resulting list entry can be assigned the probability of the realisation of the concerned threat scenarios with either low, medium or high likelihood.
As this is a tedious task in an assessment based on OCTAVE Allegro, I would not dig too much into it unless the previous step “Identify Areas of Concern” does not provide sufficient material or the analysis significantly lacks coverage. However, if thorough coverage is a requirement, that step cannot be circumvented.

Step 6 consists of a single activity and aims to identify the impact if a certain threat scenario becoming realised. Following that, each threat scenario will be attributed a consequence. Thus, table 4 has been expanded with an additional column to describe the consequence for each scenario. Part of table 4 and the newly added column is shown in table 5.

Table 5: OCTAVE Allegro Step 6: Identify Risks. Risk Example

Step 7 focuses on creation of a relative risk scores for each identified threat scenario. The impact on each impact area as well as the impact area importance will be reflected in the total risk score. The score should help to decide on what mitigation approach to choose in the ultimate step of the methodology. Assumed the impact area ranking in table 6 and threat scenario listed in table 5 the risk score for that specific scenario calculates as shown in table 6.

calculation

Table 6: OCTAVE Allegro Step 7: Analyse Risk. Example Risk Score Calculation

Basically, for each impact area the impact will be measured according to the criteria defined in step 1. An example of such criteria is provided in table 1. High impact will be assigned a value of three and low impact accordingly a value of one. The impact area ranking is then multiplied with the threat scenario impact value whereby the result of that calculation contributes to the total risk score.

Step 8 the ultimate step in the OCTAVE Allegro qualitative risk assessment method deals with the mitigation approach of identified risks. In general risks can be accepted, mitigated, transferred, avoided or being further monitored (deferred) whereas mitigation aims to avoid or limit the risk. However, the efforts for avoidance and limitation should never outweigh a potential impact.
Though numbers have been assigned as risk scores, their specific value only provides indication to whether a risk should to be mitigated or not. One might also take the likelihood of occurrence and some organisation specifics into account. It is suggested to divide the risks into four pools, pool one to pool four, whereby each pool groups threats for a range of the total risk score. The four pools are then approached as follows:

  • Pool 1: Mitigate
  • Pool 2: Mitigate or Defer
  • Pool 3: Defer or Accept
  • Pool 4: Accept

Depending on whether probabilities have been assigned in step 5 of the methodology it is suggested to either form a list of all risks and then split it into four pools or create a matrix which reflects the four pools and takes the probability into account. Finally, a mitigation strategy should be formulated for all risks that need to be mitigated. The mitigation strategy should list the information asset container to which the controls will be applied. Plus, the chosen strategy should consider and outline potential residual risks. An example of such a mitigation strategy is provided in table 7.

Table 7: OCTAVE Allegro Step 8: Select Mitigation Approach. Mitigation Strategy Example

Conclusion

OCTAVE Allegro is a lean risk assessment method and does not provide guidance in selecting security controls as with extensive information security management standards such as ISO 27000 [4]. However, ISO 27002 [5] and NIST SP 800-53 [6] provide a comprehensive list of controls to choose from, if needed.

References

[1] R.A. Caralli, J.F. Stevens, L.R. Young, W.R. Wilson. The OCTAVE Allegro Guidebook, v1.0. Cert Program, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. May 2007, Online http://www.cert.org/octave/allegro.html
[2] R.A. Caralli, J.F. Stevens, L.R. Young, W.R. Wilson. Introducing OCTAVE Allegro: Improving the Information Security Risk Assessment Process. CMU/SEI-2007-TR-012, CERT Program, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. May 2007, Online http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/07tr012.pdf
[3] G. Sindre and A.L. Opdahl. Eliciting security requirements with misuse cases. Requirements Engineering Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 34-44. Jun. 2004 (DOI 10.1007/s00766-004-0194-4)
[4] ISO-27000:2009: Information technology – Security techniques – Information security management systems – Overview and vocabulary
[5] ISO 27002:2005: Information technology – Security techniques – Code of practice for information security management
[6] NIST. Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations. Special Publication 800-53, Rev. 4, Final Public Draft, Feb. 2013, Online http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/drafts/800-53-rev4/sp800_53_r4_draft_fpd.pdf

Advanced Metering Infrastructure Architecture and Components

The advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is typically structured into a bunch of networks and composed of a few major components. Figure 1 provides an overview of all components and most networks. It is made up of the Meter, the Collector and of the server systems at the distribution system operator (DSO) or metering company side.

The subsequent sectionswill briefly introduce the major components of the AMI.

Figure 1: Advanced Metering Infrastructure Networks and Components

Head-end System
The head-end system (HES), also known as meter control system, is located within a metering company network. In most cases the metering company is the responsible DSO. The HES is directly communicating with the meters. Therefore, the HES is located in some demilitarized zone (DMZ) since services and functionality will be provided to the outside.
There is much more infrastructure at the DSO or metering company side. The collected data will be managed within a metering data management system (MDM) which also maps data to the relevant consumer. Depending on the automation level, the metering data will have influence on the DSO actions in order to balance the grid.
Exposing the HES to consumers enables some significant threats to the DSO. For example, an adversary getting hold of the HES could read all consumer data. Moreover, one could control meters or could manipulate usage data or generate alerts in order to disturb the DSO operations or at least trigger the computer incident response team (CIRT) and maybe force the DSO to backup to some business continuity plan (BCP) while analysing and recovering the HES.

Collector
The collector, also known as concentrator or gateway serves as communication node for the HES. Depending on the infrastructure the collector could be a meter itself. Its primary function is to interface between the HES and the meters and/or other collectors within its neighbourhood – the neighbourhood area network (NAN).
Not only the head-end but also the collector exposes threats. The collector is physically exposed to adversaries. Moreover, it has a trust binding to the HES and the NAN side and is thus privileged to communicate with either end. Adversaries might exploit the fact in order to attack the HES. Additionally, on the NAN side, adversaries might impersonate the collector to setup a man-in-the-middle scenario or to invoke arbitrary commands at the meters.

Meter
The meter is installed at consumer premises. When integrated with a collector, it directly communicates to the HES. As a meter it either communicates with the collector or may serve as a relay in order to route packets between nearby meters and the collector. Some meters provide an interface for appliances. With retail consumer that network is known as the home area network (HAN). Meters do also provide local diagnostic ports for manual readout, installation and maintenance tasks as shown in figure 2.
From an attackers perspective the meter is the entry point to building automation, DER and usage data. But the meter is also a relevant part of the smart grid and under no circumstances should its manipulation allow critical influence or affect the availability of the grid or parts of it.

Communication
The infrastructure consist of several networks of which all could rely on absolutely different media and a multitude of protocols. In total, three networks are commonly described when referring to the AMI. The WAN, NAN and HAN.

Wide Area Network
The WAN does connect a meter or collector to the HES. The WAN is sometimes also referred to as the backhaul network. Communication on the WAN link is mostly Internet protocol (IP) based and does commonly rely on standard information technology (IT) media and technology stacks such as fibre optic cables (FOC), digital subscriber line (DSL), general packet radio service (GPRS), multi-protocol label switching (MPLS), power line carrier (PLC) or some sort of private network. A brief overview on PLC for WAN side communication is provided in [1]
The CEN/CENELEC/ ETSI Smart Meter Co-ordination Group (SMCG) does not identify a specific protocol but proposes to rely on “secure and non proprietary protocols and communication platforms” [2] for bulk transmission from collectors that bundle a large number of meters.

Neighbourhood Area Network
The NAN connects meters and collectors. Typical NAN devices are electricity, gas, water or heat meters. organisations sometimes refer to the NAN as local metrological network (LMS) [3], field area network (FAN) [4] or the metering LAN [5].
Although standards such as the IEEE 802.15.4 [6], [7] based ZigBee profiles are gaining momentum, the industry and regulators seam to struggle on a common standard. Utilities among the European union nations seem to prefer the meter bus standard for NAN communication [3] although the ENISA does not list [4] the meter bus as a NAN protocol.

Home Area Network
Depending on the consumer type the HAN could also be named as building area network (BAN) or industrial area network (IAN). Whatever its name is, the purpose of the HAN is to integrate additional gas, water or heat meters. The HAN could allow for intelligent building automation and does also allow the integration of DERs with the smart grid.

Figure 2: Home Area Network and Local Bus Blueprint

To optimize consumption during peak hours a utility might for example decide not to entirely turn off but to throttle large heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) appliances to balance the grid. For that purpose, consumers will be required to grant utilities or a third-party supplier access to their appliances. However, intelligent control does not necessarily require the intervention of an external part. Thus, an intelligent HVAC might decide to throttle automatically based on the real-time pricing information provided by the utility.
Meters in the US largely focus on ZigBee for HAN communication [8]. Profiles for home automation and smart energy are specified in [9], [10]. The Europe based open metering system (OMS) group is pushing a specification that relies on M‑Bus whereby the wireless M‑Bus stack is compatible with the KNX specifications [11]. KNX is very popular in home automation.

Local Bus
Common interfaces for diagnostic purposes are provided as two or three-wire serial lines, current loop or as an optical interface [12], [13].

References
[1] M. Rafiei and S. M. Eftekhari, A practical smart metering using combination of power line communication (PLC) and WiFi protocols, In Proceedings of 17th Conference on Electrical Power Distribution Networks (EPDC), 2012, pp. 1–5, May 2012
[2] Smart Meters Co-Ordination Group. Standardization mandate to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the field of measuring instruments for the development of an open architecture for utility meters involving communication protocols enabling interoperability M/441: Final Report v0.7. Dec. 2009
[3] Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) Germany. Technische Richtlinie BSI-TR-03109-1: Anforderungen an die Interoperabilität der Kommunikationseinheit eines intelligenten Messsystems, v0.5. 2012
[4] ENISA. Smart Grid Security: Annex I. General Concepts and Dependencies with ICT. 2012
[5] EN 13575-1:2002: Communication system for meters and remote reading of meters – Part 1: Data exchange
[6] IEEE Std 802.15.4:2011. IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks – Part 15.4: Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)
[7] C. Bennet and D. Highfill. Networking AMI Smart Meters. In Proceedings of Energy 2030 Conference, 2008. ENERGY 2008. IEEE. pp 1-8. Nov. 2008 (DOI 10.1109/ENERGY.2008.4781067)
[8] V. Aravinthan, V. Namboodiri, S. Sunku and W. Jewell. Wireless AMI Application and Security for Controlled Home Area Networks. In Proceedings of Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 2011 IEEE. pp. 1-8. Jul. 2011 (DOI 10.1109/PES.2011.6038996)
[9] ZigBee Alliance. Home Automation Public Application Profile. ZigBee Profile: 0x0104 Revision 26, Version 1.1, Feb. 2010
[10] ZigBee Alliance. Smart Energy Profile Specification. ZigBee Profile: 0x0109, Revision 16, Version 1.1, Mar. 2011
[11] EN50090-4-1:2004. Home and Building Electronic Systems (HBES) Part 4-1: Media independent layers – Application layer for HBES Class 1
[12] EN 13575-6:2008: Communication system for meters and remote reading of meters – Part 6: Local Bus
[13] EN 62056-21:2002, Electricity metering – Data exchange for meter reading, tariff and load control – Part 21: Direct local data exchange

The Metering Infrastructure

I have provided introductions to the electrical and specifically the smart grid earlier on. Today I will briefly introduce the advanced metering infrastructure – its purpose, benefits and issues. Moreover, different approaches to metering and some ongoing security standards and specifications processes and organizations will be referenced.

Purpose of Smart Meters
The reason for smart meters is to enable the operators to improve their infrastructure towards a smarter grid and its six characteristics outlined. A smart meter has several advantages over a traditional mechanical meter. A smart meter does lots more [1], [2] than just providing detailed power consumption data to the operator. Primarily, a smart meter can significantly support the distribution system operator (DSO) to balance the network load and improve reliability.

Thus, a smart meter does not only lower manual reading cost but also enables to more efficiently estimate the load on the generators. It helps to more efficiently integrate distributed energy resources (DER) and helps to monitor the distribution network in order to identify power quality (PQ) issues, misrouted energy flows or fire alerts in case a consumer outage is being detected. Moreover, a meter could be used to push real-time pricing information to the consumer in order to allow appliances in the local network to optimize their power consumption according to the current rates. During an emergency, a meter could allow to disconnect consumers from the power grid. A meter could limit the consumption to a specified amount or could enforce pre-payment for defaulting consumers.

Yet, at time of writing, the effective use cases implemented heavily differ from operator to operator. Whereby all of them support at least remote meter reading. However, a security analysis should take all potential use cases into consideration since it is likely that firmware and hardware is being enhanced to support additional use cases in the near future.

Meter Reading vs. Metering Infrastructure
Typically, literature differs between advanced meter reading (AMR) and the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) whereby AMR is to be seen as a subset of AMI [3].
AMR provides the metering company with usage data only. AMR does not allow for remote controlled action or advanced collection of power information. Thus, one-way communication from meter to the metering company is sufficient for that approach.
AMI will allow for remote initiated actions and will therefore require a two-way communication protocol. Though the border between the two approaches fades since remote initiated reading will also require for a two-way channel in AMR setups.

North American vs. European Implementations
The US as well as the European countries have developed absolutely independent implementations of the AMI. Nevertheless, the key drivers and business needs are exactly the same. Comparing the two, the preferred communication protocols in either continent are not compatible with each other.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and European Network and Information Security Agency (ENISA) respectively the European Committee for Standardization, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (CEN/CENELEC/ETSI) mandated by the European Commission drive very similar projects to provide security guidance [4], [5] for smart grid and metering implementations. However, the guidance neither specifically requests for nor does it recommend the use of specific protocols.

References
[1] G. N. Sorebo and M. C. Echols. Smart Grid Security: An End-to-End View of Security in the New Electrical Grid. CRC Press. 2011 (ISBN 978-1-4398-5587-4)
[2] ENISA. Smart Grid Security: Annex I. General Concepts and Dependencies with ICT. 2012
[3] E.D. Knapp. Industrial Network Protocols, AMI and the Smart Grid. In Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems. Syngress. 2011 (ISBN 978-1-59749-645-2)
[4] NIST. Security Profile for Advanced Metering Infrastructure. v2.0, Jun. 2010
[5] ENISA. Smart Grid Security: Recommendations for Europe and Member States. Jul. 2012

Grid, gridder, smart grid

This post will briefly introduce the major aspects and goals of smart grids. For those not familiar with electrical grids, have a look at the former post for a quick intro. This article aims to describe the challenges and requirements smart grids are dealing with. Moreover, the need for an intelligent measurement network – the advances metering infrastructure (AMI) will be outlined

Some electricity industry body defines the smart grid as follows: “A Smart Grid is an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the behaviour and actions of all users connected to it -generators, consumers and those that do both – in order to efficiently ensure sustainable, economic and secure electricity supply. ” [1]. The definition clearly refers to the challenging dynamics of renewable energy resources (RES) whose generation heavily relies on the fluctuate availability of sun light, wind or maybe tides. Unfortunately, it less clearly addresses changes in behavior whereby the smart grid should not only be capable to react on actions but should also directly or indirectly influence consumption behavior.

There have been six major characteristics [2, 3] identified. These characteristics describe the key benefits of a smart grid. The reference even provides additional detail on the characteristics:

  1. “Enables Informed Participation by Customers 
  2. Accommodate s All Generation & Storage Options 
  3. Enables New Products, Services, & Markets 
  4. Provides Power Quality for the Range of Needs 
  5. Optimizes Asset Utilization & Operating Efficiency 
  6. Operates Resiliently to Disturbances, Attacks, & Natural Disasters ”

The upper halve of the characteristics is probably the most interesting from a retail customers view. However, the thesis I am currently working on will map to the part “Operates Resiliently to Disturbances, Attacks” of item six.

For the smart grid the basic electrical grid in the former post is enriched with new elements. The basic domain structure persists but an additional domain hosting distributed generators and distributed storage devices have been added to the smart grid blue print shown in the below figure.

The newly introduced domain hosts all sort of distributed energy resources (DER) such as generators and storages. The blueprint introduces a small wind park which contributes to the distribution domain and a PV installation with rechargeable batteries as buffer storage, Moreover, a freezer and an electrical vehicle (EV) were added to the consumer domain. Actually, the EV is not only a consumer but may also contribute to the grid as a storage in peak times. Its not the single items which are challenging for the grid but its the masses which require for more ‘smartness’. Small systems could also be grouped and centrally managed as a combined power plant to form a steady power resource. A more detailed view on improvements in the transmission and distribution domains with focus on security is given in [4].

Smart Grid Security

Thus, to ensure reliability of the grid the DSO and TSO must ensure that the power consumed and the power generated stays balanced otherwise efficiency and power quality (PQ) suffer. Unfortunately, poor PQ may quickly result in damaged consumer devices. To avoid such scenario, live information and detailed statistics of the consumer behavior, of generators capacity and of storage capacity is needed. Moreover, the operator will need to smartly attach or detach generators and consumer devices (EV) to their local storage or to the grid according to the power needs. The management of the grid balance is also known as demand-response. As good it sounds, management of so many components is much more complex and the recovery of a failure will demand for a controlled re-launch of DERs and bulk generators simultaneously at both ends of the grid. Additionally, dynamic-pricing or real-time pricing (RTP) or critical peak pricing (CPP) could help to reduce peak loads and would result in lower demand-response efforts. For real-time pricing, consumers will be kept informed on the current power rates. Consumers could then decide on whether to run heavy loads at the current pricing.

Hence, reporting consumption and switching loads will require a bi-directional channel being established between operator and consumer. The channel would then allow for delivery of detailed measurement from the consumer and DG side to the operators. Furthermore, it would enable the operator to actively manage DER and to push real-time information to the consumer facilities. The equipment and network necessary is known as the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). I will provide a closer look to the AMI in upcoming posts. Stay tuned.

In order to securely operate smart grids, NERC (North American Electricity Reliability Corporation) and ENISA (European Network and Informations Security Agency) have prepared appropriate recommendations [5,6].

[1] EURELECTRIC, Smart Grids and Networks of the Future, 201, http://www.eurelectric.org/Download/Download.aspx?DocumentID=26620
[2] U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 2009 Smart Grid System Report, 2009, http://www.doe.gov/sites/prod/files/2009%20Smart%20Grid%20System%20Report.pdf
[3] U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), 2010 Smart Grid System Report, 2012, http://www.doe.gov/sites/prod/files/2010%20Smart%20Grid%20System%20Report.pdf
[4] G. N. Sorebo and M. C. Echols, Smart Grid Security: An End-to-End View of Security in the New Electrical Grid, CRC Press, 2011, ISBN 978-1-4398-5587-4
[5] NERC Reliability Standards, http://www.nerc.com/page.php?cid=2%7C20
[6] ENISA Smart Grid Security Recommendations, http://www.enisa.europa.eu/activities/Resilience-and-CIIP/critical-infrastructure-and-services/smart-grids-and-smart-metering/ENISA-smart-grid-security-recommendations